Balanced eating for different age groups

  • ¨Energy is measured in kilocalories  (kcal) or kilojoules (kJ)
  • Nutrient Kcal/kJ
    Protein

    Carbohydrate

    Fat

    Alcohol

    4kcal/17kJ

    4kcal/17kJ

    9kcal/37kJ

    7kcal/29kJ

Outline the factors affecting energy requirements

1.Age

Young people require more energy as they are growing rapidly & tend

to be very active.  As people get older energy requirements decrease,

together with their BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate)

2.Size & Body Weight

The larger the body, the more energy it needs

3.Gender

Men have a higher proportion of muscle to fat compared to women, therefore men require more energy

4.Level of Activity

The more people active are, the more energy they  need. Running requires more energy than playing a computer game

4.Occupation

Sedentary work eg. Office work, requires less energy than manual work eg. Construction cork

5.Climate

More energy is needed in colder climates to maintain a consistent body temperature

6.Pregnancy

During pregnancy and lactation, women require more energy

Pregnancy: Energy needed for the developing foetus

Lactation: Energy needed for the production of breast milk

7.Illness

During times of illness, different amounts of energy are required, eg, less energy is needed during convalescence.

Dietary Requirements of Babies©

  • Breastfeed for the first few months
  • Most babies are weaned at 4–6 months
  • Varied diet from 8 months on
  • Never add salt or sugar to babies’ food
  • Avoid honey, highly spiced, fatty and fried food
  • Cow’s milk not suitable for first 12 months

Obair Bhaile for Friday

Explain what is meant by the team weaning?

What nutrients are important for the development of the baby?

4 thoughts on “Balanced eating for different age groups

  1. Babies!!!

    Nutritional requirements:

    The term infant is born with reserves of energy and many nutrients that have been acquired during foetal life, particularly in the third trimester. These contribute to meeting the nutritional needs of the newborn but all the dietary energy and the majority of essential nutrients are supplied by milk;

    Fat

    Fat is a rich source of energy (as calories) for the baby and accounts for approximately half of the energy content of breast milk
    Babies energy needs are much greater than adults relative to their body weight, due to the fast rate of growth in early life
    Fat is also the vehicle for the transfer of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E &K and other substances such as prostaglandins
    Breast milk also supplies other essential fats: omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, which are vital constituents of brain and neural tissues

    Carbohydrate

    Carbohydrate is another major energy source for the baby, providing about 40% of the total energy in breast milk
    The principle carbohydrate in breast milk is lactose
    Breast milk contains significant quantities of other carbohydrates, mainly monosaccharides and oligosaccharides
    The oligosaccharides of breast milk may have a function in the defence against viruses, bacteria or other toxins and in promoting the growth of intestinal flora, including strains with possible probiotic effects, such as bifidobacteria

    Protein

    The infant requires protein for growth and the maintenance and repair of body tissues, as well as to make enzymes that control many body functions
    There are two distinct protein components in breast milk; casein and whey. The ratio of casein/whey protein in mature milk is approximately 40:60 Whey proteins form a soft curd in the stomach that is easily digested
    The whey component in breast milk contains important proteins such as:
    Lactoferrin, which inhibits bacterial growth by making iron unavailable
    Lysozyme, which is an enzyme that inhibits bacteria by disrupting their cell walls
    Alpha-lactalbumin, which helps provide the appropriate balance of essential amino acids in breast milk
    Immunoglobulins, which are antibodies

    Casein protein has coagulating properties, which forms a firmer curd and takes longer to digest in the baby’s stomach

    Vitamins

    Infants require both fat soluble and water soluble vitamins for a variety of functions:
    Vitamin A: essential for normal growth and development, healthy skin and eyes and also the immune function
    Vitamin D: essential for calcium absorption; deficiency can cause poor bone growth and rickets
    Vitamin E: important in metabolism
    Vitamin K: important for maintaining the normal blood clotting function of the body
    B vitamins: important in energy metabolism and expenditure
    Vitamin C: necessary for normal growth and development. It is needed to form collagen, a protein used to make skin, scar tissue, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels. It is also important for the absorption of iron

    Minerals

    Infants require minerals that play a variety of roles in the body:
    Calcium: essential for bone growth, muscle contraction, nerve transmission and blood clotting
    Phosphorous: essential for bone growth
    Iron: an important nutrient which has many metabolic functions, including oxygen transport in the red blood cells
    Zinc: essential for growth, development and immune function

    Energy Requirements: Total energy requirements (kJ day(-1)) increased with age and were higher in boys than girls due to differences in weight. Energy requirements decreased from 473 kJ kg(-1) per day for boys and 447 kJ kg(-1) per day for girls at 1 month of age to 337 kJ kg(-1) per day for boys and 341 kJ kg(-1) per day for girls at 6 months of age, and thereafter tended to plateau. Energy deposition as a percentage of total energy requirements decreased from 40% at 1 month to 3% at 12 months of age. These estimates are 10-32% lower than the 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations which were based on observed energy intakes of infants.

    The term ‘Team Weaning’: When your baby stops nursing and gets all his nutrition from sources other than the breast, he’s considered weaned. Although babies are also weaned from the bottle, the term most often refers to when a baby stops breastfeeding.

    Weaning is a long goodbye — bittersweet and freeing at the same time. But weaning doesn’t need to end the intimate bond you and your child created through nursing. It just means you’re nourishing and nurturing in different ways.

  2. 👶👶 babies👶👶

    Nutritional requirements:
    Fat:Fat is a rich source of energy (as calories) for the baby and accounts for approximately half of the energy content of breast milk
    Babies energy needs are much greater than adults relative to their body weight, due to the fast rate of growth in early life
    Fat is also the vehicle for the transfer of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E &K and other substances such as prostaglandins
    Breast milk also supplies other essential fats: omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, which are vital constituents of brain and neural tissues

    Carbohydrate

    Carbohydrate is another major energy source for the baby, providing about 40% of the total energy in breast milk
    The principle carbohydrate in breast milk is lactose
    Breast milk contains significant quantities of other carbohydrates, mainly monosaccharides and oligosaccharides
    The oligosaccharides of breast milk may have a function in the defence against viruses, bacteria or other toxins and in promoting the growth of intestinal flora, including strains with possible probiotic effects, such as bifidobacteria

    Protein

    The infant requires protein for growth and the maintenance and repair of body tissues, as well as to make enzymes that control many body functions
    There are two distinct protein components in breast milk; casein and whey. The ratio of casein/whey protein in mature milk is approximately 40:60
    Whey proteins form a soft curd in the stomach that is easily digested
    The whey component in breast milk contains important proteins such as:
    Lactoferrin, which inhibits bacterial growth by making iron unavailable
    Lysozyme, which is an enzyme that inhibits bacteria by disrupting their cell walls
    Alpha-lactalbumin, which helps provide the appropriate balance of essential amino acids in breast milk
    Immunoglobulins, which are antibodies
    Casein protein has coagulating properties, which forms a firmer curd and takes longer to digest in the baby’s stomach

    Vitamins

    Infants require both fat soluble and water soluble vitamins for a variety of functions:

    Vitamin A: essential for normal growth and development, healthy skin and eyes and also the immune function
    Vitamin D: essential for calcium absorption; deficiency can cause poor bone growth and rickets
    Vitamin E: important in metabolism
    Vitamin K: important for maintaining the normal blood clotting function of the body
    B vitamins: important in energy metabolism and expenditure
    Vitamin C: necessary for normal growth and development. It is needed to form collagen, a protein used to make skin, scar tissue, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels. It is also important for the absorption of iron

    Breast milk from well nourished mums provides adequate amounts of all vitamins with the exception of vitamins D and K;

    Vitamin D intake from food is low but is supplemented by synthesis on exposure to adequate sun light in the summer months
    Due to health concerns about sun exposure, few infants are likely to have regular sun exposure
    All women are recommended to take supplements containing 10 µg of vitamin D each day during pregnancy and breastfeeding, which can help prevent deficiency in their infants
    Vitamin K is synthesised by bacteria in the gut. In the UK and ROI, intramuscular or oral supplements are administered in the first few weeks of life by the midwife

    What does it mean to have weaned a child?

    When your baby stops nursing and gets all his nutrition from sources other than the breast, he’s considered weaned. Although babies are also weaned from the bottle, the term most often refers to when a baby stops breastfeeding.

    Weaning is a long goodbye — bittersweet and freeing at the same time. But weaning doesn’t need to end the intimate bond you and your child created through nursing. It just means you’re nourishing and nurturing in different ways.

    About when I was a babie 👶👶👶👶👶👶👶: I was on born on Friday 2⃣5⃣/0⃣2⃣/2⃣0⃣0⃣2⃣ at 9:00 am. I was 7 pound. My mam called me megan Theresa after my aunti.

  3. Babies👶👶

    Nutritional requirements:

    The term infant is born with reserves of energy and many nutrients that have been acquired during foetal life, particularly in the third trimester. These contribute to meeting the nutritional needs of the newborn but all the dietary energy and the majority of essential nutrients are supplied by milk;

    Fat

    Fat is a rich source of energy (as calories) for the baby and accounts for approximately half of the energy content of breast milk
    Babies energy needs are much greater than adults relative to their body weight, due to the fast rate of growth in early life
    Fat is also the vehicle for the transfer of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E &K and other substances such as prostaglandins
    Breast milk also supplies other essential fats: omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, which are vital constituents of brain and neural tissues

    Carbohydrate

    Carbohydrate is another major energy source for the baby, providing about 40% of the total energy in breast milk
    The principle carbohydrate in breast milk is lactose
    Breast milk contains significant quantities of other carbohydrates, mainly monosaccharides and oligosaccharides
    The oligosaccharides of breast milk may have a function in the defence against viruses, bacteria or other toxins and in promoting the growth of intestinal flora, including strains with possible probiotic effects, such as bifidobacteria

    Protein

    The infant requires protein for growth and the maintenance and repair of body tissues, as well as to make enzymes that control many body functions
    There are two distinct protein components in breast milk; casein and whey. The ratio of casein/whey protein in mature milk is approximately 40:60 Whey proteins form a soft curd in the stomach that is easily digested
    The whey component in breast milk contains important proteins such as:
    Lactoferrin, which inhibits bacterial growth by making iron unavailable
    Lysozyme, which is an enzyme that inhibits bacteria by disrupting their cell walls
    Alpha-lactalbumin, which helps provide the appropriate balance of essential amino acids in breast milk
    Immunoglobulins, which are antibodies

    Casein protein has coagulating properties, which forms a firmer curd and takes longer to digest in the baby’s stomach

    Vitamins

    Infants require both fat soluble and water soluble vitamins for a variety of functions:
    Vitamin A: essential for normal growth and development, healthy skin and eyes and also the immune function
    Vitamin D: essential for calcium absorption; deficiency can cause poor bone growth and rickets
    Vitamin E: important in metabolism
    Vitamin K: important for maintaining the normal blood clotting function of the body
    B vitamins: important in energy metabolism and expenditure
    Vitamin C: necessary for normal growth and development. It is needed to form collagen, a protein used to make skin, scar tissue, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels. It is also important for the absorption of iron

    Minerals

    Infants require minerals that play a variety of roles in the body:
    Calcium: essential for bone growth, muscle contraction, nerve transmission and blood clotting
    Phosphorous: essential for bone growth
    Iron: an important nutrient which has many metabolic functions, including oxygen transport in the red blood cells
    Zinc: essential for growth, development and immune function

    Energy Requirements: Total energy requirements (kJ day(-1)) increased with age and were higher in boys than girls due to differences in weight. Energy requirements decreased from 473 kJ kg(-1) per day for boys and 447 kJ kg(-1) per day for girls at 1 month of age to 337 kJ kg(-1) per day for boys and 341 kJ kg(-1) per day for girls at 6 months of age, and thereafter tended to plateau. Energy deposition as a percentage of total energy requirements decreased from 40% at 1 month to 3% at 12 months of age. These estimates are 10-32% lower than the 1985 FAO/WHO/UNU recommendations which were based on observed energy intakes of infants.

    Weaning

    The weaning process begins the first time your baby takes food from a source other than your breast – whether it’s formula from a bottle or mashed banana from a spoon. Weaning is the gradual replacement of breastfeeding with other foods and ways of nurturing.

  4. babies!!
    0-6 Months Nutrition
    Information about nutritional requirements in the first 6 months of life

    Early infancy

    The human body undergoes its most rapid phase of growth during infancy and healthy babies usually double their birthweight in the first six months of life.

    Nutritional requirements

    The term infant is born with reserves of energy and many nutrients that have been acquired during foetal life, particularly in the third trimester. These contribute to meeting the nutritional needs of the newborn but all the dietary energy and the majority of essential nutrients are supplied by milk;

    Fat

    Fat is a rich source of energy (as calories) for the baby and accounts for approximately half of the energy content of breast milk
    Babies energy needs are much greater than adults relative to their body weight, due to the fast rate of growth in early life
    Fat is also the vehicle for the transfer of the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E &K and other substances such as prostaglandins
    Breast milk also supplies other essential fats: omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, which are vital constituents of brain and neural tissues

    Carbohydrate

    Carbohydrate is another major energy source for the baby, providing about 40% of the total energy in breast milk
    The principle carbohydrate in breast milk is lactose
    Breast milk contains significant quantities of other carbohydrates, mainly monosaccharides and oligosaccharides
    The oligosaccharides of breast milk may have a function in the defence against viruses, bacteria or other toxins and in promoting the growth of intestinal flora, including strains with possible probiotic effects, such as bifidobacteria

    Protein

    The infant requires protein for growth and the maintenance and repair of body tissues, as well as to make enzymes that control many body functions
    There are two distinct protein components in breast milk; casein and whey. The ratio of casein/whey protein in mature milk is approximately 40:60
    Whey proteins form a soft curd in the stomach that is easily digested
    The whey component in breast milk contains important proteins such as:
    Lactoferrin, which inhibits bacterial growth by making iron unavailable
    Lysozyme, which is an enzyme that inhibits bacteria by disrupting their cell walls
    Alpha-lactalbumin, which helps provide the appropriate balance of essential amino acids in breast milk
    Immunoglobulins, which are antibodies
    Casein protein has coagulating properties, which forms a firmer curd and takes longer to digest in the baby’s stomach

    Vitamins

    Infants require both fat soluble and water soluble vitamins for a variety of functions:

    Vitamin A: essential for normal growth and development, healthy skin and eyes and also the immune function
    Vitamin D: essential for calcium absorption; deficiency can cause poor bone growth and rickets
    Vitamin E: important in metabolism
    Vitamin K: important for maintaining the normal blood clotting function of the body
    B vitamins: important in energy metabolism and expenditure
    Vitamin C: necessary for normal growth and development. It is needed to form collagen, a protein used to make skin, scar tissue, tendons, ligaments and blood vessels. It is also important for the absorption of iron

    Breast milk from well nourished mums provides adequate amounts of all vitamins with the exception of vitamins D and K;

    Vitamin D intake from food is low but is supplemented by synthesis on exposure to adequate sun light in the summer months
    Due to health concerns about sun exposure, few infants are likely to have regular sun exposure
    All women are recommended to take supplements containing 10 µg of vitamin D each day during pregnancy and breastfeeding, which can help prevent deficiency in their infants
    Vitamin K is synthesised by bacteria in the gut. In the UK and ROI, intramuscular or oral supplements are administered in the first few weeks of life by the midwife

    Minerals

    Infants require minerals that play a variety of roles in the body:

    Calcium: essential for bone growth, muscle contraction, nerve transmission and blood clotting
    Phosphorous: essential for bone growth
    Iron: an important nutrient which has many metabolic functions, including oxygen transport in the red blood cells
    Zinc: essential for growth, development and immune function

    The iron content of breast milk is low but is well utilised by the body and the baby also relies on its body stores in the first 4-6 months of life

    At around 4 to 6 months, as the body stores start to deplete, the baby has to depend more on the diet for its source of iron

    Breast milk: a unique source of nutrition for infants

    The unique composition of breast milk changes according to the nutritional needs of the newborn and, through its non-nutritional components, helps in adaptation to life outside the womb
    Breast milk is the best food for babies and contains all the energy and nutrients they need
    The composition of breast milk is not constant but changes during feeds, according to the time of day and during the course of lactation
    Breast milk contains bioactive non-nutritional substances that provide protection from bacterial and viral infections and may aid growth and development
    The advantages of breastfeeding to mother and baby are numerous and long lasting; in addition to its nutritional benefits, breastfeeding gives a number of non-nutritional advantages to young babies

    Current feeding recommendations

    British and Irish Governments recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months (26 weeks) of life

    Alternatives to breast milk

    Infant formulas are the only alternatives to breast milk in babies under the age of one year
    Most infant formulas are based on cows’ milk and have been designed to mimic the nutrient composition of breast milk
    In recent years, infant formula composition has evolved from just trying to mimic breast milk to trying to replicate specific biological effect of it, thus providing some of the known benefits of breast milk
    Major advances include the addition of nucleotides and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPs) to formulas and, more recently, the improvement of protein quality (in alpha-protein enriched formula)Rice cereal and other foods with rice have long been recommended as first or early foods for infants and children. Recent concerns have been raised regarding arsenic content in rice. Key points about this issue are:

    Further research continues.
    Neither the FDA or The American Academy of Pediatrics recommend avoiding or placing specific limits on the amount of rice in a child’s diet.
    Parents should also offer children a wide variety of age-appropriate foods to their children. These include:

    Cereals from other grains such as oats, wheat, and barley
    Vegetable purees
    Finely chopped meat (good source of iron)
    BIRTH TO 4 MONTHS OF AGE

    During the first 4 – 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs.

    If breastfeeding, a newborn may need to nurse 8 – 12 times per day (every 2 – 4 hours), or on demand. By 4 months, the baby is likely to cut back to 4 – 6 times per day, however, the quantity of breast milk consumed at each feeding will increase.

    Formula-fed babies may need to eat about 6 – 8 times per day, starting newborns with 2 – 3 ounces of formula per feeding (for a total of 16 – 24 ounces per day). As with breastfeeding, the number of feedings will decrease as the baby gets older, but the amount of formula will increase to approximately 6 – 8 ounces per feeding.

    Never give honey to an infant, as it may contain the spores that cause botulism. An infant’s immune system is not fully developed to fight off this disease.

    Although an infant may sleep through the night, waking to feed may be necessary if the infant is not eating enough during the day or if they are underweight. Routine check-ups with your physician to monitor your child’s growth will ensure they are eating adequately during the day. Your doctor or dietitian will inform you if waking to feed is recommended.

    4 – 6 MONTHS OF AGE

    At 4 – 6 months of age an infant should be consuming 28 – 45 ounces of formula, and is often ready to start the transition to solid foods. Starting solids too soon may cause the infant to choke if they are not physically ready.

    There are several developmental milestones to indicate an infant is ready to eat solid foods:

    The birth weight has doubled
    The baby has good control of head and neck
    The baby can sit up with some support
    The baby can show fullness by turning the head away or by not opening the mouth
    The baby begins showing interest in food when others are eating.
    Start solid feedings with iron-fortified baby rice cereal mixed with breast milk or formula to a thin consistency. The cereal may be mixed to a thicker consistency as the baby learns to control it in his mouth.

    Initially, offer cereal 2 times per day in servings of 1 or 2 tablespoons (dry amount, before mixing with formula or breast milk).
    Gradually increase to 3 or 4 tablespoons of cereal.
    Cereal should not be given in a bottle unless a doctor or dietitian recommends it, for example, for reflux.
    Once the baby is eating rice cereal routinely, you may introduce other iron-fortified instant cereals. Only introduce one new cereal per week so you can watch for an intolerance or allergy.

    Never put a child to bed with a bottle as this can cause bottle mouth, resulting in tooth decay. Use plain water if a bottle is necessary. Discuss use of water with your physician. (In some cases, use of excess water can lead to seizures in children.)

    6 – 8 MONTHS

    Continue to offer breast milk or formula 3 – 5 times per day. Cow’s milk is not recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for children under 1 year old.

    The baby will begin drinking less formula or breast milk once solid foods become a source of nutrition.

    After a baby has tried a variety of different baby cereals, try strained fruits and vegetables.

    For strained fruits and vegetables, introduce one at a time, waiting 2 – 3 days in between to check for any allergic reaction.
    Start with plain vegetables such as green peas, potatoes, carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, beans, beets; and plain fruits such as bananas, applesauce, apricots, pears, peaches, and melon.
    Some dietitians recommend introducing a few vegetables before fruits, as the fruit’s sweetness may make a less-sweet food such as vegetables less appealing.
    Give fruits and vegetables in 2 – 3 tablespoon servings and offer about 4 servings per day.
    Amounts of fruits and vegetables eaten per day will vary between 2 tablespoons and 2 cups depending on the size of your child and how well the child eats fruits and vegetables. The consistency of foods offered may be gradually increased as your child tolerates.

    Finger foods may be offered in small amounts, but avoid foods such as apple chunks or slices, grapes, hot dogs, sausages, peanut butter, popcorn, nuts, seeds, round candies, and hard chunks of uncooked vegetables that may cause choking.

    Soft cooked vegetables, washed and peeled fruits, graham crackers, melba toast, noodles are good finger foods. Salty or sugary foods are not recommended. Teething foods, such as toast strips, unsalted crackers, bagels, and teething biscuits may also be introduced at this time.

    8 – 12 MONTHS OF AGE

    Breast milk or formula should be offered three to four times per day at this age. Cow’s milk is not recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for children under 1 year old.

    At 8 – 12 months of age, a baby will be ready to try strained or finely chopped meats. For breastfed infants, start meats at 8 months of age (breast milk is not a rich source of iron, but infants have adequate iron stores to last until 8 months of age when iron-rich foods such as meats can be given).

    As with other foods, offer only 1 new meat per week in 3 – 4 tablespoon servings — use strained and finely ground meats, frankfurters, or meat sticks. Serving sizes for fruits and vegetables increases to 3 – 4 tablespoons, four times per day. Eggs may be given 3 – 4 times per week, but only the yolk until the baby is 1 year old, as some babies are sensitive to egg whites.

    By the age of 1, most children are off the bottle. If the child still uses a bottle, it should contain water only.

    1 YEAR OF AGE

    After a baby is 1-year old, whole milk may replace breast milk or formula. Children under the age of 2 should not be given low-fat milk (2%, 1%, or skim) as they need the additional calories from fat to ensure proper growth and development.

    Children under the age of 1 should not be given whole milk as it has been shown to cause low blood counts. Cheese, cottage cheese, and yogurt, however, may be given in small amounts.

    The 1-year-old child should be getting much of their nutrition from meats, fruits and vegetables, breads and grains, and the dairy group, especially whole milk.

    Providing a variety of foods will help to ensure enough vitamins and minerals. Toddlers do not grow as rapidly as babies do, so their nutritional needs relative to their size decrease during the second year of life. Although they continue to gain weight, they no longer double their weight as infants do.

    Keep in mind, however, that toddlers are becoming more and more active as they learn to crawl and walk. Toddlers and small children will usually eat only small amounts at one time, but will eat frequently (4 – 6 times) throughout the day, so snacking is strongly encouraged.

    Feeding tips:

    Feeding solids too early is not recommended and can result in overfeeding.
    Offer only one new food at a time. Offer the new foods for a few days. Watch for allergic reactions (hives, vomiting, diarrhea).
    Do not feed solids in a bottle.
    If your child dislikes the new food, try giving it again later.
    SAFETY DURING MEALTIMES

    Feed the baby directly from the jar only if you use the entire jar contents, otherwise use a dish to prevent contamination with food-borne illness.
    Opened containers of baby’s food should be covered and stored in a refrigerator for no longer than 2 days.
    Use a small spoon to feed the baby.
    A baby put to bed with a bottle (milk, fruit juice, or sweetened beverage) can develop bottle mouth, resulting in tooth decay. Use plain water if a bottle is necessary.
    Avoid foods that may cause the baby to choke — popcorn, nuts, potato chips, whole kernel corn, berries, grapes, hot dogs, raw vegetables, raisins, dry flake cereals.
    OTHER TIPS

    Water can be offered between feedings.
    Feeding sweets or sweetened beverages is not recommended, because they will spoil the appetite and contribute to tooth decay.
    Salt, sugar, and strong spices are not recommended.
    Caffeine products are not recommended (soft drinks, coffee, tea, chocolate).
    A fussy baby may need attention, rather than food.
    OLDER CHILDREN

    Throughout childhood and adolescence, it is important that the diet include a variety of foods for proper development. The principles of the food guide plate apply to a child’s diet as well as an adult’s, although portions and number of servings per day are obviously less for children.

    After the age of 2, it is recommended that the diet be moderately low in fat, as diets high in fat may contribute to heart disease, obesity, and other health problems later in life.

    In areas where water is not fluoridated, fluoride supplementation is recommended. A diet that contains a variety of foods from each of the food groups (breads and grains, meats, fruits and vegetables, and dairy) will help prevent nutrient deficiencies.

    Both the American Medical Association and the American Dietetic Association recommend that healthy children should get all their nutrients from foods rather than vitamin supplements.

    The nutrients that are most likely to be deficient in a child’s diet are calcium, iron, vitamin C, vitamin A, folic acid, and vitamin B6. The American Academy of Pediatrics does not support routine supplementation for normal, healthy children. However, there is no significant risk if a parent wishes to give their child a standard pediatric multivitamin.

    Children who consume little or no dairy products are at particular risk for calcium deficiency that can interfere with bone growth and development. Foods that are good sources of calcium include low-fat or nonfat milk, yogurt, and cheeses. Other foods such as broccoli, cooked greens, and canned salmon (with bones) will also provide a source of calcium in the diet; however, it is often difficult to get children to consume adequate quantities of these foods.

    Iron requirements vary by age, rate of growth, iron stores, increasing blood volume, and rate of absorption from food sources. Adolescent girls will have increased iron needs due to menstrual losses. Food sources of iron include meat, fish, poultry, iron-fortified cereals, spinach greens, and dried beans and peas.
    i apoligise for sending it now as i didnt know it was on the blog. 🙂

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